EXCERPTS FROM THE TREATY OF LUNEVILLE (1801)

 

[After the temporary reverses suffered by France during Bonaparte's absence in Egypt, his victory over the Austrians at Marengo, and another victory of

the French at Hohenlinden in December, 1800, put the First Consul in a position to exact at Luneville all the concessions which Austria had made at Campoformio and somewhat more. The chief provisions of this important treaty are here given. They well illustrate the unscrupulous manner in which Austria and France dis­posed of the lesser countries and the system of reckless territorial changes which are so conspicuous during the whole Napoleonic period.]

 

His Majesty the emperor, king of Hungary and of Bohemia, and the First Consul of the French republic, in the name of the French people, induced by a common desire to put an end to the evils of war, have resolved to proceed to the conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace and amity. Moreover his said Imperial and Royal Majesty, since he desires no less sincerely to extend the benefits of peace to the German empire, and since the existing conditions do not afford the necessary time to consult the empire, or to per­mit its representatives to take part in the negotiations, has resolved, in view of the concessions made by the deputation of the empire at the recent Congress of Rastadt, to treat in the name of the German confederation, as has happened before under similar circumstances.

 

Hence the contracting parties have named the following as their plenipotentiaries:

 

His Imperial and Royal Majesty, the Sieur Louis, count of Cobenzl, minister of conferences and vice chancellor of the court and of state, etc.

The First Consul of the French republic, in the name of the French people, Citizen Joseph Bonaparte, councilor of state. These having exchanged their credentials, have agreed upon the following articles:

 

ARTICLE I. Peace, amity, and a good understanding shall hereafter exist forever between his Majesty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, acting both in his own name and in that of the German empire, and the French repub­lic;.. . .

 

II. The cession of the former Belgian provinces to the French republic, stipulated in Article III of the Treaty of Campo-Formio, is renewed here in the most solemn manner. His Majesty the emperor and king therefore renounces for himself and his successors, as well on his own part as on that of the German empire, all right and title to the above specified provinces, which shall be held in perpetuity by the French republic in full sovereignty and proprietary right. . . .

 

III. Moreover, in confirmation of Article VI of the Treaty of Campoformio, his Majesty the emperor and king shall possess in full sovereignty and proprietary right the coun­tries enumerated below, to wit : Istria, Dalmatia, and the islands of the Adriatic, formerly belonging to Venice, dependent upon them; the mouths of the Cattaro, the city of Venice, the Lagunes, and the territory included between the hereditary states of his Majesty the emperor and king, the Adriatic Sea, and the Adige from the point where it leaves Tyrol to that where it flows into the Adriatic, the channel of the Adige forming the boundary line….

 

IV. Article XVIII of the Treaty of Campoformio is likewise renewed, inasmuch as his Majesty the emperor and king agrees to cede to the duke of Modena, as an indemnity for the territory which this prince and his heirs possessed in Italy, the Breisgau, which he shall hold upon the same conditions as those upon which he held Modena.

 

V. It is further agreed that his Royal Highness the grand duke of Tuscany shall renounce for himself, his successors, or possible claimants, the grand duchy of Tuscany and that part of the island of Elba belonging to it, as well as all rights and titles resulting from the possession of the said states, which shall hereafter be held in full sovereignty and propri­etary right by his Royal Highness the infante duke of Parma. The grand duke shall receive a complete and full indemnity in Germany for the loss of his states in Italy. . . .

 

VI. His Majesty the emperor and king consents not only on his part but upon the part of the German empire that the French republic shall hereafter possess in full sovereignty and proprietary right the territories and domains lying on the left bank of the Rhine and forming a part of the Ger­man empire, so that, in conformity with the concessions granted by the deputation of the empire at the Congress of Rastadt and approved by the emperor, the channel of the Rhine shall hereafter form the boundary between the French republic and the German empire, from that point where the Rhine leaves Helvetian territory to the point where it reaches Batavian territory. In view of this the French republic formally renounces all possessions whatsoever upon the right bank of the Rhine and agrees to restore to their owners the following places : Duesseldorf, Ehrenbreitstein, Phillipsburg, the fortress of Cassel and other fortifications across from Mayence on the right bank of the stream, and the fortress of Kiel and Alt-Breisach, under the express provision that these places and forts shall continue to exist in the state in which they are left at the time of the evacuation.

 

VII. Since, in consequence of this cession made by the empire to the French republic, various princes and states of the empire find themselves individually dispossessed in part or wholly of their territory, and since the German empire should collectively support the losses resulting from the stip­ulations of the present treaty, it is agreed between his Maj­esty the emperor and king, - both on his part and upon the part of the German empire, -and the French republic, that, in accordance with the principles laid down at the Congress of Rastadt, the empire shall be bound to furnish the hereditary princes who have lost possessions upon the left bank of the Rhine an indemnity within the empire according to such arrangements as shall be determined later in accordance with the stipulations here made.

 

XI. The present treaty of peace, is declared to be common to the Batavian, Helvetian, Cisalpine, and Ligurian republics. The contracting parties mutually guarantee the independence of the said republics and the freedom of the inhabitants of the said countries to adopt such form of government as they shall see fit.

 

XII. His Majesty the emperor and king renounces for himself and for his successors in favor of the Cisalpine republic all rights and titles depending upon such rights, which his Majesty might assert over the territories in Italy which he possessed before the war and which, according to the terms of Article VIII of the Treaty of Campoformio, now form a part of the Cisalpine republic….

 

XIX. The present treaty shall be ratified by his Majesty the emperor and king, the empire, and the French republic within a period of thirty days, or sooner, if possible, and it is further understood that the armies of the two powers shall remain in their present positions, both in Germany and Italy, until the said ratifications of the emperor and king, of the empire, and of the French republic shall have been simultaneously exchanged at Luneville between the respective plenipotentiaries. It is also agreed that within ten days after the exchange of the said ratifications the armies of his imperial and royal majesty shall be withdrawn into his hereditary possessions, which shall be evacuated within the same space of time by the French armies; and within thirty days after the said exchange the French armies shall have completely evacuated the territory of the said empire.

 

Done and signed at Luneville, February 9, 1801 (the 20th Pluviose of the year nine of the French republic).

(Signed)

Louis, Count of Cobenzl

Joseph Bonaparte